A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks.
Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations. An open plan permits the expansion of the total numbering capacity of the plan by addition of more digits to a subset of numbers. Many numbering plans subdivide their territory of service into geographic regions designated by a special prefix, often called area code, which is a fixed-length or variable-length set of digits forming the most-significant part of the dialing sequence to reach a telephone subscriber.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has established a comprehensive numbering plan, designated E.164, for uniform interoperability of the networks of its member state or regional administrations. It is an open numbering plan, however, imposing a maximum length of 15 digits to telephone numbers. The standard defines a country calling code (country code) for each state or region which is prefixed to each national numbering plan telephone number for international destination routing.
Private numbering plans exist in telephone networks that are privately operated in an enterprise or organizational campus. Such systems may be supported by a private branch exchange (PBX) which controls internal communications between telephone extensions.
In contrast to numbering plans, which determine telephone numbers assigned to subscriber stations, a dial plan establishes the customer dialing procedures, i.e. the sequence of digits users are required to dial to reach a destination. Even in closed numbering plans, it is not always necessary to dial all digits of a number. For example, an area code may often be omitted when the destination is in the same area as the calling station.
The North American Numbering Plan is a closed numbering plan which prescribes ten digits for each complete destination routing code that is divided into three parts. The most significant part is a three-digit Numbering Plan Area (NPA) code (area code). Within each plan area central offices are numbered with a three-digit central office (CO) code, the second part. The remaining four digits number the specific line assigned to each telephone. Other countries with open numbering plans may use variable-length numbers; in some, such as Finland, subscriber numbers may vary in length even within a local exchange.
From : Wiki
In today’s world of enhanced connectivity, phone number tracking sometimes becomes essential. Billions of people today operate mobile phones. This sometimes leads to unsolicited or spam calls, which everyone wants to avoid.
Thankfully, today’s mobile phones are equipped with google location services and GPS devices that make mobile tracking easy. This is a necessary evil because on one hand it helps us keep track of our loved ones and prevent us from unwanted calls, while on the other this may lead to unauthorised tracking or data theft.
GPS (Global Positioning System) is a network of 27 geosynchronous satellites all around the Earth at an altitude of 20000 km. These satellites broadcast microwave signals that are received by GPS receivers here on Earth to determine accurate location, time and velocity through the process of ‘trilateration’. The GPS itself does not require an internet connection and that makes it even more handy.
GPS service can be used to track your lost mobile phone or track the location of the number that is calling you. There are many companies that are offering this service for phone number tracking for a fee. There are also many apps available on Google Play as well as Apple Store that can help locate a phone number.
Mobile network operators can also trace a phone number with the help of IMEI number as all phone numbers have a unique IMEI number that can be used to trace back to the nearest mobile tower and also their GPS signals. However, direct tracking of phone is possible when the location sharing or GPS settings is on. But, if the GPS is off then the phone can be tracked using the ‘Triangulation tower Method’.
Today we are living in a mobile friendly wireless world, where it has now become easier to track people. A mobile number can be traced either through mobile phone tracking or positioning. Mobile phone tracking is done via GPS or Global Positioning System. The Global positioning is done through 27 Earth orbiting satellites that are constantly revolving around the Earth. A GPS receiver that is normally installed in your smartphones will locate four or more of these satellites wherever you are located. The triangulation method pin points your exact position. By triangulating with the satellites and also your smartphones, the GPS receiver will be able to tell your smartphone or the apps that is using the GPS data your exact location and the surrounding areas.
Example of apps that use the GPS data is like Waze, Papago etc. Another way to tracking phone number is through mobile positioning. It uses the same concept of GPS and that is triangulation method. However, instead of using the satellites, it uses radio towers closes to your phones for the triangulation. Your phone will emit a roaming signal to a nearby radio tower. The location of your phone is determined through how strong the signal is sent to each of the receiving radio towers. It is not as precise as the GPS but it does not require you to open any app for it to function.
So, based on these two methods, a mobile can be tracked where it is located to an exact location. The number that is being used by the mobile phone can easily be obtained by contacting the operator network and they will identify which radio towers is receiving the strongest signal from that particular number of the mobile phone. The triangulation method then is also used to determine which other radio towers is also receiving the signal. By calculating the strength and weak signal, they can obtain a rough estimate of the mobile phone location.
There are also ways to track the owner of the mobile phone. There are certain web services available to track the owner of the mobile phone number outside your contact list. Some of them are as follows:
So, the above mentioned apps and web services make mobile tracking easier. However, these services should be used in a restrained way and only authorised tracking should be performed if you don’t want to fall into trouble.
Mobile tracking becomes important sometimes. You may have lost your phone or would like to track your friend’s location. Well, there are many ways available to track a mobile phone. There is also a dark world of cellphone surveillance that is often misused in the name of national security or for other ulterior motives.
There are also many free mobile tracking apps available in the market today. Some of them are as follows: